摘 要： 村民自治从开始实施到现在不过十多年时间，是正在实践中的一项年轻的事业，在其实施过程中肯定会遇到诸多的困难和问题。我们知道，从一项法律制度的形成到实践该法律制度并使其成熟，必须经过长期、艰辛的努力。村民自治也不例外，从十几年前全国人大将村民自治写入宪法、制定《中华人民共和国村民委员会组织法》以后，全国各地农村先后实施了村民自治，其实施过程暴露了许多思想上、观念上以及法律上的问题。从现有的全国性规范村民自治的法律来看，除了《中华人民共和国村民委员会组织法》以外，没有其他有关村民自治的实体法和程序法。地方法规中，本市已经有了《上海市村民委员会选举办法》、《上海市实施〈中华人民共和国村民委员会组织法〉办法》两部法规，这是总结了前阶段的实践制定的法规，使本市村民自治有了比较可靠的法律保障。但是，笔者以一个实践者的角度来考察本市的村民自治，发现了一些问题，如由村民委员会的法律地位联系到村民在自治管理中处于相对方而涉及到的司法救济问题、“村民”的界定问题、《村组法》实施 的某些操作程序问题、基层政府指导村民自治的程序问题等，都必须以法律法规的形式加以明确。笔者通过从实践中出现的法律问题的分析和考察，提出了自己的观点和建议，如通过立法授予村民委员会行使行政职权从而拥有独立的“行政主体”地位、科学地界定“村民”的范围等，即要把村民自治这项事业做好，必须完善现有的一些实体法律，并且要重视程序性法规的立法工作，以不断推进村民自治法律制度。
关键词: 村民自治 村民委员会 行政主体 司法救济
abstract : as a newly appeared cause with an execution period of no more than ten years, sure enough villager autonomy has encountered varies difficulties and problems. as we all know, from its establishment to mature practice, a legal institution should go through a sustained and hardly struggle. the villager autonomy has no exception. since the people’s conGREss of state included villager autonomy into our constitution, and developed the “law of villager council structure of p. r.c.” ten years and more ago, all the country states of china realized villager autonomy one after another in whose process, many idealistic and jural problem have been exposed. having looked up our current national normative laws of villager autonomy, we found that we have no entity laws and procedure law related to villager autonomy except the “law of villager council structure of p. r.c.”. and local statute, shanghai has had “vote rule of villager council of shanghai” and “the way to carry out the ‘law of villager council structure of p. r.c.’ of shanghai” which both summarize the former experience and provide a legal guarantee to villager autonomy. however, having reviewed the villager autonomy of shanghai in the angle of practitioner, the author found some problems which should be clarified jurally. for example, problem about legal capacity of villager council related to judicial almsgiving when villagers face the supervise of villager autonomy, definition of villager, operational procedure to realize the “law of villager council structure of p. r.c.”, program to guide the villager autonomy etc. the author indicated his idea and proposal by analyze and review the present legal problem: the villager council should be awarded administrative authority via lawmaking so that it could be held status of principal part of administration; to fix the definition of villager scientifically etc.. in order to enhance legal institution of villager autonomy and achieve from the cause of villager autonomy, it is necessary that we should attach great importance to the establishment of procedure laws and improve current entity laws.
关键词: villager autonomy, villager council, principal part of administration, judicial almsgiving